哲学基本问题:物质怎么就决定意识了?

大问题Dialectic
3 Sept 202153:16

Summary

TLDR本视频探讨了心身问题,即意识与物质之间的关系。介绍了七种哲学流派的解决方案,包括实体二元论、伴随现象论、行为主义、身份理论、消除主义、功能主义和属性二元论。这些理论试图解释意识现象是如何从物质世界中产生、它们是否独立于物质存在,以及心身如何相互作用。视频鼓励观众参与讨论,思考自己更倾向于哪种解释。

Takeaways

  • 🧠 意识与物质的关系问题是哲学中的基本问题,被称为心身问题。
  • 📚 中学教科书的标准答案是物质决定意识,意识是物质世界的长期发展产物。
  • 🤔 笛卡尔的实体二元论认为物质和精神是两种独立且不可分割的实体。
  • 🚫 物质主义无法解释人类意识现象,如语言能力和灵活处理问题的能力。
  • 💭 笛卡尔提出“我思故我在”,强调思考是确定知识存在的依据。
  • 🔄 心身互动问题在于物理事件如何引起精神状态,以及精神状态如何引起物理事件。
  • 👸 波希米亚的伊丽莎白公主对笛卡尔的实体二元论提出了质疑。
  • 🏫 物理主义和行为主义试图通过物质活动解释精神状态,但忽略了意识的主观性。
  • 🧪 功能主义认为意识是物质实体的功能状态,支持多重实现性,即为软件在硬件上的实现。
  • 🧬 属性二元论认为精神属性是物质实体的一种属性,但独立于物质属性。
  • 🌐 意识的本质和起源问题仍然是哲学和科学领域中一个开放的讨论话题。

Q & A

  • 什么是心身问题?

    -心身问题是指探讨意识(心智)与物质(身体)之间的关系的哲学问题。它探讨的是我们的意识现象是如何从物质世界,尤其是人脑的物理过程中产生的。

  • 笛卡尔的二元论是如何解释心身关系的?

    -笛卡尔的二元论认为,物质和精神是两种独立且不相互依赖的实体。物质是可延伸的实体,而精神则是不可延伸的,具有思考属性的实体。因此,物质和精神是两个独立的存在,但又不可分割地联系在一起。

  • 物理主义是如何解释意识现象的?

    -物理主义认为所有存在的事物,包括意识现象,都可以基于物理事实来清楚地描述。它主张意识是大脑神经活动的物理状态,或者是大脑中分子、原子等基本粒子的基本运动的结果。

  • 什么是行为主义?它如何解释心理状态?

    -行为主义是一种哲学立场,主张心理状态应当等同于人的行为倾向。它不关注内在的精神状态,而是关注可观察的行为表现。行为主义者认为,只有通过行为表现,我们才能真正了解一个人的心理状态。

  • 身份理论是如何尝试解决心身问题的?

    -身份理论认为心理状态实际上就是大脑的状态。换句话说,心理状态和大脑状态实际上是同一件事情。身份理论试图通过将心理状态还原为大脑的神经状态来解决心身问题,从而避免了笛卡尔二元论中的交互问题。

  • 消除主义是如何看待心理状态的?

    -消除主义认为,我们日常语言中描述的心理状态,如疼痛、情感、信念、欲望等,都是幻觉,并不对应任何底层的神经状态。消除主义者主张,我们应该放弃使用日常语言中的这些心理词汇,而改用科学术语,如神经元、轴突、树突和神经递质等来讨论心理现象。

  • 功能主义是如何解释意识与物质之间的关系的?

    -功能主义认为意识是一种功能状态,是物质实体(如人脑)的精神状态。它强调意识可以被实现为多种物理形式,即所谓的“多重可实现性”。功能主义者将意识比作软件程序,而大脑则是运行这些程序的硬件。

  • 属性双重论是如何在物理主义框架内解释意识的独立性的?

    -属性双重论认为,虽然世界上只存在一种实体,即物质实体,但这种实体表现出两种属性:物质属性和精神属性。精神属性独立于物质属性存在,因此意识作为一种精神属性,不能完全用物质属性来解释。

  • 哲学家大卫·查尔默斯是如何区分意识问题的简单问题和困难问题的?

    -大卫·查尔默斯将关于意识的问题分为简单问题和困难问题。简单问题涉及大脑的结构、神经网络的连接方式、脑波的放电模式等,这些问题可以通过物理主义的第三人称科学语言清楚地描述。而困难问题则是关于我们为什么有意识,以及我们的意识现象——即主观体验——是什么,这些问题涉及意识的主观性,难以用语言清晰表达。

  • 什么是哲学僵尸的思想实验?

    -哲学僵尸的思想实验是一种假设存在的生命体,它们在物理结构和行为上与正常人类没有任何区别,但它们没有任何主观的意识体验。这个思想实验用来证明精神属性独立于物质属性,即使物质结构完全相同,也可能不存在意识。

  • 涌现理论和泛心论是如何解释意识的来源的?

    -涌现理论认为意识是大脑神经网络整体协同作用的产物,当神经元以适当的方式连接时,意识就会突然产生。而泛心论则认为,就像所有事物都具有物理属性一样,所有事物也都具有精神属性,意识是宇宙中所有物理实体固有的属性。

Outlines

00:00

🤔 探讨心身问题

本段讨论了心身问题,即意识与物质之间的关系。提到了中学教科书中的标准答案,即物质决定意识,并探讨了这一观点的局限性。提出了意识现象的神奇之处,以及意识是否独立于物质世界。

05:00

💭 笛卡尔的二元论

介绍了17世纪法国哲学家笛卡尔的二元论观点,他认为物质和精神是两种独立的实体。笛卡尔的世界观是机械论的,认为世界是物质的基本粒子在基本力作用下的基本运动。但他同时认为,机器无法模拟人类的意识现象,因此物质主义无法解释意识现象。

10:02

🤯 心身互动的问题

探讨了心身互动问题,即人类既有物质身体也有精神意识,这两者如何相互作用。笛卡尔试图通过松果腺来解释物质与精神的互动,但这一解释仍存在许多疑问。

15:05

🌪️ 物质主义的几种解释

介绍了物质主义对心身问题的几种解释,包括副现象论、行为主义、身份理论和消除理论。这些理论试图用物理主义的科学语言来解释人类意识现象,但都存在一定的问题和批评。

20:11

🧠 身份理论与批评

身份理论认为意识状态实际上就是大脑状态,但批评指出这一理论无法解释意识的主观性,也无法解释非碳基物质可能产生意识状态的可能性。

25:12

🚫 消除理论与批评

消除理论认为日常语言中描述的意识状态是幻觉,不是真实的,应该被消除。批评指出,消除理论忽视了常识心理学的价值,并且无法解释意识的主观性。

30:12

🔄 功能主义与批评

功能主义认为意识是物质实体的功能状态,强调意识的多重可实现性。批评主要集中在功能主义无法解释意识的主观性,以及对强人工智能的可行性提出质疑。

35:13

🌈 属性二元论

属性二元论认为意识状态是物质实体的精神属性,这些属性独立于物质属性。这一理论试图为意识的独立存在提供空间,但也面临着解释精神属性来源的挑战。

40:15

📣 讨论与总结

总结了七种探讨心身问题的理论方案,包括实体二元论、副现象论、行为主义、身份理论、消除理论、功能主义和属性二元论,并邀请观众参与讨论这一哲学大问题。

Mindmap

Keywords

💡心身问题

心身问题是指探讨意识(心灵)与物质(身体)之间的关系的哲学问题。在视频中,这个问题是整个讨论的核心,不同的哲学流派提出了不同的解决方案。例如,笛卡尔的实体二元论认为心灵和物质是两种独立的实体,而物理主义者则认为意识可以归结为物质过程。

💡物质决定意识

物质决定意识是一种哲学观点,认为物质世界是基础,意识是物质世界长期发展的产物,是人脑的功能和物质世界的主观映像。这个观点在视频中被提及,作为中学教科书的标准答案,但在哲学讨论中仍有待深入探讨。

💡笛卡尔

笛卡尔是17世纪法国的哲学家、数学家和物理学家,他提出了著名的实体二元论,认为心灵和物质是两种独立且不同的实体。他的这一观点对心身问题的讨论产生了深远影响。

💡行为主义

行为主义是一种心理学和哲学的观点,主张通过可观察的行为来解释心理状态,忽略内在的心理过程。在视频中,行为主义者认为心理状态等于行为倾向,不涉及任何不可观测的精神实体。

💡身份理论

身份理论是物理主义的一种形式,主张心理状态与大脑状态是同一的,即心理状态可以归结为大脑的神经状态。这种理论试图通过科学的语言来解释意识现象,避免了心灵与物质之间的二元分裂。

💡消除主义

消除主义是物理主义的一种极端形式,认为日常语言中描述的心理状态如疼痛、感觉、信念、欲望等都是幻觉,并不对应任何神经学状态。消除主义者认为应该用科学术语如神经元、轴突、树突和神经递质来代替这些心理词汇。

💡功能主义

功能主义是一种哲学观点,认为心理状态是大脑功能的实现,意识可以被视为软件程序,而大脑则是运行这些程序的硬件。功能主义强调意识的多重可实现性,即不同的物质基础可以实现相同的心理功能。

💡属性二元论

属性二元论是一种哲学立场,认为虽然世界上只存在一种实体,即物质实体,但这种实体具有两种属性:物质属性和精神属性。精神属性虽然依赖于物质实体,但具有不可还原的独立性。

💡意识

意识是指个体对自身思想、感觉和周围世界的主观体验和感知。它是哲学和心理学中探讨的核心概念之一,涉及到个体的自我认知和对内在体验的直接感受。

💡自由意志

自由意志是指个体在没有外部强制或决定性因素的情况下,能够自主选择行动的能力。这个问题与心身问题紧密相关,因为它涉及到意识、决策和物质世界之间的关系。

💡强人工智能

强人工智能是指达到或超越人类智能水平的人工智能系统。这种智能系统不仅能够执行复杂任务,还能够拥有自主意识、情感和主观体验。

💡泛心论

泛心论是一种哲学立场,认为所有物质都具有意识或心灵属性,即使是非生物也有某种形式的意识。这一观点试图解释意识的本质和起源,认为意识是宇宙中所有事物的基本属性。

Highlights

节目讨论了心身问题,这是哲学中一个基本的大问题。

标准答案是物质决定意识,意识是物质世界的长期发展的产物。

介绍了七种哲学流派对心身问题的解答,包括实体二元论、副现象论、行为主义、同一性理论、消除主义、功能主义和属性二元论。

笛卡尔是实体二元论的代表,他认为物质和精神是两个独立而完整的实体。

笛卡尔的机械世界观对当时的知识分子世界观产生了重大影响。

提出了关于心身互动的问题,即物质事件如何引起精神状态,以及精神状态如何引起物质事件。

伊丽莎白公主对笛卡尔的心身互动问题提出了质疑。

介绍了副现象论,认为精神状态是物质运动的副产品,但本身不会引发新的事件。

行为主义认为精神状态等于行为倾向,忽略所有无法测量或验证的无形精神实体。

同一性理论认为精神状态实际上就是大脑状态。

消除主义认为日常语言中描述的精神状态都是幻觉,不对应任何神经状态。

功能主义认为精神状态是物质实体的功能状态,可以实现多次。

属性二元论认为精神状态是物质实体的精神属性,不能归结为物质属性。

提出了哲学僵尸的思想实验,用以证明精神属性独立于物质属性。

对于心身问题,除了物理主义的解释,还有出现论和泛心论等尝试解释精神属性来源的理论。

心身问题至今仍是一个有争议的问题,表明意识问题不是一个简单的科学问题。

节目最后呼吁观众参与到这个大问题的讨论中来,表明这是一个开放的哲学议题。

Transcripts

00:00

Hello everyone,

00:00

the big question to be discussed in this episode of the Big Questions program is

00:02

the mind-body problem.

00:05

Regarding this question,

00:06

those of us who have attended middle school all know that the standard answer

00:08

is that

00:09

matter determines consciousness, and matter is the first.

00:11

Consciousness is the long-term development of the material world. The product is the function of the human brain and the subjective image of the material world.

00:15

Of course, if you answer this way, you are definitely right.

00:17

When answering short answer questions in the middle school exam,

00:19

even if you don’t know anything,

00:19

first say "matter determines consciousness and consciousness reacts on matter." You can always get a few points

00:22

by attacking first

00:24

, but

00:25

it has been so many years since our college entrance examination.

00:26

Regarding this issue, if you still only know these few big words,

00:28

if I ask you to explain it in detail, you won’t be able to explain why.

00:31

Then we are here The level is still at the middle school level.

00:33

I remember when I was an undergraduate in college,

00:35

I majored in business.

00:36

I remember when I was a freshman

00:38

, the management teacher shared a business case in a management class

00:40

and then asked a classmate to analyze it. In this case,

00:42

this classmate stood up

00:43

without saying a word, opened his mouth, came here, and

00:51

immediately shocked the management teacher next to him.

00:55

Do you think this is a reward or not?

00:57

So in today’s short program,

00:58

we will talk about the relationship between consciousness and matter.

01:01

Let’s put aside these big words and talk about some detailed reasons.

01:04

Indeed, our human consciousness phenomenon is indeed a very magical existence.

01:08

Are we unique? mind?

01:10

Or are we just a body

01:12

like other animals or machines

01:14

? Does consciousness have an independence from matter

01:17

? Or is consciousness just a derivative of the material world?

01:21

If consciousness is derived from matter

01:22

, how is it derived?

01:24

In fact, this question is indeed a big question.

01:26

Some materials say that this question is a "basic question of philosophy."

01:30

Indeed, the answer to this question

01:32

also lays the foundation for answering a series of other big questions in philosophy,

01:34

such as the problem of free will, the problem of strong artificial intelligence, and the self. The issue of identity

01:38

, the issue of immortality of the soul, etc.

01:40

It can be said that the discussion of these big issues

01:42

ultimately needs to return to the discussion of this basic philosophical question. Regarding

01:46

this basic question,

01:47

today we will introduce the solutions of seven philosophical schools.

01:50

They are:

02:00

Of course, since there are relatively many factions introduced,

02:02

this program will last about an hour.

02:04

However, even so, the introduction of

02:06

this basic philosophical issue

02:08

in today’s short program of about one hour is definitely incomplete.

02:12

Today’s introduction is only Let's start with some

02:14

ideas for everyone to criticize and discuss. Now let's

02:16

go to the main part of the meeting.

02:18

First, we invite Descartes, the representative of entity dualism, to

02:29

appear. When talking about this issue of the relationship between consciousness and matter,

02:31

I have to say

02:32

that this pit was dug by the 17th-century French philosopher Descartes.

02:36

We started from From middle school textbooks, we can know that

02:37

Descartes is a dualist.

02:39

On the one hand, he believes that matter is an independent and self-contained entity.

02:42

On the other hand, he believes that spirit is also an entity that is independent and self-contained from matter.

02:45

Our simple understanding of the meaning of this entity is that it is

02:47

independent and self-contained. Things

02:49

can exist independently on their own without relying on other things.

02:51

Therefore, the two entities of matter and spirit are independent of each other

02:55

and have an inseparable relationship.

02:56

That's why we call this view dualism.

02:59

We have to say that

03:00

Descartes is first of all. A materialist

03:02

, he is a mathematician and physics after all.

03:04

He is not like some great gods who

03:05

just talk about the soul and destiny all day long.

03:08

Descartes still talks about science.

03:10

We need to know that in the 17th/18th century

03:12

The worldview of Western intellectuals has changed from the original religious worldview

03:15

to the "Cartesian-Newtonian" worldview.

03:18

What does this worldview mean?

03:19

It means following Newtonian mechanics.

03:21

To put it bluntly, it is a mechanistic worldview.

03:23

Simply put, there is nothing mysterious about this world. Everything in the

03:25

world is the basic movement of basic particles under basic forces.

03:29

This worldview is very materialistic. This was Descartes’s worldview at the time.

03:32

This materialistic worldview was very popular among the intellectual circles at the time.

03:35

If you are in the circle of friends It doesn't talk about mechanics or materialism. It

03:38

talks about Plato's ideas and Aristotle's forms.

03:41

It feels like your village has not yet connected to the Internet.

03:43

Descartes's mechanistic worldview

03:45

can not only explain things like Descartes also believed that

03:49

there is nothing mysterious about

03:50

objects such as stones, clouds, tables, and rags. The

03:52

human body is just a machine, a complex machine at most.

03:55

Our bones, blood vessels, and meridians are also equivalent to this. The components of a machine

03:59

are all in line with materialism

04:02

, but the following question arises.

04:03

Although materialism can explain everything in the world and even the human body

04:07

, Descartes believes that

04:08

there is only one thing that materialism cannot explain,

04:11

and that is human beings.

04:12

Why can't materialism

04:14

explain mental phenomena, that is, human consciousness ?

04:17

The reason Descartes gave

04:18

is quite similar to the reason given by the current artificial intelligence academic circle.

04:21

He asked

04:22

us if we can imagine that we can create a complex machine

04:25

. Can we simulate human-like consciousness?

04:27

Descartes believed that this was obviously impossible.

04:29

Descartes gave two reasons.

04:30

First, a machine cannot have human language capabilities.

04:34

A machine is just a repeater.

04:35

You can only store different memes in advance for it

04:37

, and then it just repeats these memes and does If you don’t play jokes creatively,

04:41

to put it simply, this machine itself has no jokes. What about

04:44

the second point? The machine can only do specific things.

04:47

It is not like us humans who can handle different things flexibly.

04:51

AlphaGo can only play chess but not I know how to clean,

04:53

let alone tell jokes,

04:54

so machines cannot simulate human consciousness,

04:57

so materialism cannot explain the phenomenon of consciousness.

04:59

Of course

05:00

, you may think that computer science in Descartes’ time has not yet been developed.

05:03

His argument is a bit rough

05:05

. Don’t worry. Descartes also has a trump card argument

05:07

, which is "I think,

05:09

therefore I am". The original intention of the argument is to find the certainty of knowledge.

05:13

Descartes asked

05:14

what things in this world definitely exist and can withstand doubt. Woolen cloth?

05:18

You say that this cup definitely exists because it can be seen and touched.

05:21

That’s not necessarily true.

05:22

We have all seen the movie "The Matrix". It

05:24

is very likely that we are living in the virtual world of the Matrix.

05:27

This is completely possible logically. So

05:29

the world in front of us, including all kinds of things

05:31

, even scientific knowledge and mathematical knowledge, can be doubted.

05:35

But here comes the key.

05:37

Descartes discovered that when I doubt everything with such thorough doubt,

05:41

the only thing that cannot be doubted is the doubt itself.

05:44

Because if I doubt that I am doubting, it means that I am still doubting.

05:48

Therefore, doubt itself cannot be doubted.

05:50

Then doubting is thinking.

05:52

Doubting is me. Thinking is me thinking.

05:55

So I can have no body

05:57

, but I cannot not have thinking,

05:59

so I think, so I It must exist.

06:01

This is "I think, therefore I am.

06:03

" "I think, therefore I am." That's how it came about.

06:05

After universal doubt, Descartes

06:07

discovered that such a thinking mind cannot be doubted. It is

06:10

a truly reliable thing.

06:11

Descartes' "I think, therefore I am."

06:13

The argument

06:16

"

06:18

in

06:19

_

06:22

_ Simply put , the meaning of high

06:25

is that it can be seen and touched.

06:26

The other kind of entity is the spiritual entity. It has no extension, that is, it cannot be seen or touched.

06:30

Its attribute is thinking.

06:32

These two entities are independent and real.

06:36

In fact, let's talk about

06:37

Descartes' dualism. In fact, it is in line with the common sense of our people.

06:41

Of course, the world is first of all material. Needless to say,

06:43

things in this world are extended and can be seen and touched.

06:46

It can be measured through physical instruments

06:48

, but we have to admit that

06:50

our mental phenomena are also real.

06:53

Although it is invisible and intangible

06:54

, we can still really feel that we are spiritual.

06:58

For example, when we are in love, Sometimes

06:59

we will question each other and say,

07:01

"Do you love my soul or are you just greedy for my body?

07:04

This all shows that our common sense is Cartesian.

07:07

We will think that spirit is different from matter

07:09

and even spirit is higher than matter.

07:11

We would hope that the other person fell in love with me because we read a lot of poetry

07:14

or told a good joke,

07:16

rather than because of my body

07:17

or the many coins in my account at Station B.

07:19

This is what Descartes said. A brief introduction to dualism.

07:22

After introducing dualism,

07:24

we will introduce the criticism of dualism.

07:26

In today's program,

07:27

every time we introduce the thoughts of a

07:29

school , we will also introduce the

07:32

basic philosophical issue of criticism of this school of thought.

07:33

In fact, there are different schools. There is a lot of quarrel among scholars

07:35

, so today we will introduce the pros and cons

07:38

for you to discuss.

07:43

Descartes

07:46

's dualism

07:48

seems

07:49

to be very complete

07:50

. The peaceful situation where water in a well does not interfere with the river

07:53

has encountered a bug in one thing.

07:55

What is this thing?

07:56

This thing is a human being.

07:57

We humans have both a material body and a spiritual consciousness.

08:01

The problem lies in

08:02

these two things. How does it interact?

08:05

For example, you watch our video program on your mobile phone.

08:07

This is a physical event

08:08

, but this physical event triggers a state of mind for you.

08:12

After you watch this program, what do you feel in your heart? I am very happy

08:15

and then this mental state triggers the next mental state,

08:18

which is that you want to like this program and cast coins.

08:20

Then this mental state triggers the next physical event

08:23

, that is, you actually move your finger to thumb up and cast coins.

08:26

The problem is The two steps

08:27

are how a physical event can cause a mental state

08:30

and how a mental state can cause a physical event. You

08:33

must know that

08:33

the physical world must comply with the law of conservation of mass and energy,

08:37

which means that

08:37

the causal relationship in the physical world must be Closed in the physical world,

08:41

something that is visible and tangible

08:43

must trigger the movement of another visible and tangible thing.

08:46

You say that an invisible and intangible state of mind

08:48

triggers a visible and tangible thing. The movement of matter

08:50

, Descartes, are you still a scientist

08:52

? Do you want to work here?

08:54

In fact,

08:54

the problem of mind-body interaction had already appeared when Descartes was alive. At

08:58

that time, Descartes had a fan girl

09:00

named Elizabeth of Bohemia. Princess

09:02

, she became obsessed with Descartes after reading Descartes' "Meditations on First Philosophy".

09:06

But Elizabeth was very talented

09:08

and saw the problem at a glance.

09:09

She wrote to Descartes and asked about

09:11

the human spirit and human body. How did they interact?

09:14

After receiving the letter, Descartes discovered

09:15

that I, a philosopher and ancient philosopher, have a girl? My fan is

09:18

also a princess. Let’s chat privately for a while.

09:20

So Descartes wrote back to answer this question.

09:22

At first, Descartes The answer is that the influence of the mind on the body

09:24

is similar to the influence of gravity on objects.

09:29

Descartes’s answer to a reader’s question in this issue was very clever. He

09:31

used the popular physics terms at the time to bluff people,

09:33

just like some boys and girls we have today. When chatting,

09:35

she always likes to talk about quantum spin and wave function collapse to

09:39

bluff people, making other girls stunned.

09:40

But Princess Elizabeth is an ignorant girl. She definitely doesn’t buy it.

09:44

Descartes sees that this female fan is not easy to fool

09:45

him. He also replied that this interaction between spirit and matter

09:49

occurs in a place called the pineal gland in the human brain.

09:52

Descartes himself also drew a schematic diagram

09:54

saying that in this pineal gland,

09:55

material things can be converted into spiritual things. into matter

09:59

, but this answer is still very confusing.

10:01

You said that the pineal gland is the place where matter and spirit are converted into each other

10:05

. So how exactly does it convert?

10:06

So is the pineal gland itself material or spiritual?

10:09

This is a huge pit that Descartes dug for later generations of philosophers.

10:13

It is the so-called mind-body problem.

10:15

How do our spiritual existence, the mind, and the material existence, the body, interact? It

10:20

can be said about the future development of philosophy of mind.

10:22

To a large extent, they are filling the hole dug by Descartes,

10:25

which is also answering Princess Elizabeth’s question to Descartes.

10:29

In fact, the root of this mind-body problem is what we call

10:31

consciousness and the relationship between consciousness and matter. The root cause of the problem of

10:35

mind-body interaction

10:37

is that Descartes had to insist on a kind of dualism.

10:40

He had to separate consciousness and matter into two different entities.

10:43

In order to solve the problem of mind-body interaction,

10:45

later philosophers generally believed that

10:47

we must abandon dualism and return to dualism. As for monism,

10:50

most of the monism before Descartes was idealistic,

10:52

that is , matter and spirit were well unified

10:55

through some Platonic idea or the Christian God.

10:57

But after Descartes,

10:59

it was all after the scientific revolution. In the world,

11:01

not many intellectuals are willing to take the road of idealism.

11:04

The current mainstream scientists and philosophers all follow materialism

11:07

, or to use a more common term in the academic world, it is called physicalism. Physicalism

11:11

is what we usually call

11:12

materialism. A version of

11:15

physicalism that combines the development of modern natural science. Simply put, it means that

11:17

all things that really exist in the world

11:19

are based on physics and can be described clearly by natural science

11:23

, including physics, chemistry, biology and other natural sciences.

11:26

In addition, if Things that cannot be explained clearly by physics are not real.

11:29

So if the phenomenon of human consciousness is described using physicalism,

11:32

it can only be described clearly using scientific language such as brain nerves, molecules, and atoms. At most,

11:36

one quantum is added.

11:38

Other than that, don’t do any mysterious chores.

11:40

This is physicalism.

11:41

Well, the next problem is that

11:43

since philosophers and scientists who insist on physicalism believe that matter determines consciousness

11:47

, they will face such a difficult problem

11:48

: the state of mind of consciousness. How is it derived from material things?

11:53

What is the derived mechanism?

11:55

Well,

11:55

in this episode,

11:56

let’s introduce several theories from the physicalist camp.

11:59

Let’s see how they fill the hole Descartes dug.

12:02

Let’s first introduce the relationship between epiphenomenalist

12:12

consciousness and matter.

12:14

Let’s first introduce it. Let’s introduce one solution in materialism,

12:16

which is epiphenomenalism.

12:18

Before explaining what epiphenomenalism is, let’s take a closer look. As

12:20

mentioned before, physicalists want to solve the problem of mind-body interaction.

12:24

In fact, they want to explain what consciousness is. Or

12:27

rather, it

12:28

can explain what our human mental state is.

12:31

However, since you are from the materialist camp,

12:34

when you use materialism to explain the human mental state,

12:36

you must follow the following two creeds

12:39

. Otherwise, Are you not a materialist?

12:41

Then these two tenets are:

12:42

first, observing the closed nature of physical cause and effect.

12:45

You can't just leave it here to perform power from a distance.

12:47

Second, observing that matter determines consciousness.

12:49

In other words, consciousness is a product derived from matter.

12:52

It is to use the scientific language of physicalism to describe the phenomenon of human consciousness

12:55

instead of doing any mysterious and complicated work.

12:57

Under the premise of adhering to these tenets,

13:00

the homework materialists have to do is

13:02

how to use the language of physicalism. It is to use scientific language to explain the human state of mind.

13:06

To resolve the somewhat mysterious sounding state of mind

13:09

using the language of physicalism

13:11

, that is, to write a clear description on the right side of the equal sign that can be explained clearly in the scientific language of physicalism.

13:16

Okay, so the answer given by

13:19

the epiphenomenalist on the right side of the equal sign for what is a mental state

13:21

is that the mental state is an epiphenomenon of the movement of matter.

13:24

What is an epiphenomenon?

13:25

English is by-products, which means by-products,

13:28

just like the smoke produced by the train, the shadow left by the billiard ball rolling across the table,

13:32

or the squeak made by new shoes.

13:35

You see, smoke, shadows and squeaks are all by-products. By-products

13:39

affect the operation of the system. They don't play any role.

13:42

They are just products of accompanying nature.

13:43

Let's draw a picture to explain it and it will be clear at a glance.

13:46

For example, if you watch the show Dialectic,

13:49

it is a physical event

13:50

, and you feel very happy in your heart

13:52

, and then something comes up in your brain. The desire to vote for a thumbs up

13:55

, and then move your finger to actually vote for a thumbs up.

13:58

These boxes are all physical events

14:00

, and these round boxes are mental states.

14:02

What really happens in this world is just the physics in the boxes. event

14:05

and the state of mind in the circle is just a by-product.

14:08

The box caused the circle, but the circle stopped there. The circle

14:11

will not cause any further events.

14:13

So you give Big Questions a thumbs up and a coin. What is

14:16

the correct way to describe this event? It is

14:18

you who saw this video, which triggered your brain activity

14:21

, and this brain activity triggered your action of tossing in coins and likes.

14:25

These are all conductive relationships between physical events.

14:27

You feel happy in your heart, and you want to toss in coins and like.

14:30

These mental states are just by-products

14:32

and will not trigger the next event.

14:35

If you look at the plan of epiphenomenalism, it avoids

14:37

the use of special functions to break the closure of physical cause and effect.

14:40

It also adheres to the creed that matter determines consciousness

14:43

. To put it bluntly, epiphenomenalism

14:44

means that your conscious phenomena are useless mental pollution.

14:48

Do you think that your reflection and imagination all day long will have an impact on your real life?

14:52

What you don’t have

14:53

is not that you first think about how I should live in your mind

14:55

and then you live according to your ideas.

14:57

Ask yourself

14:58

where do you come from so much reflection in your life?

15:00

You get up every morning, eat, go to work, fish, get off work, and talk. When you're in love or when you have children,

15:05

don't you just live how you should live according to the inertia of life?

15:08

You think about

15:09

everything all day long and a

15:11

robot who doesn't think about anything all day long, eats or drinks, doesn't take it to heart,

15:14

actually life doesn't mean much. The substantive difference.

15:16

The only difference between you and that robot is that

15:19

there is some extra mental pollution in your brain.

15:21

This is a simple summary of epiphenomenalism.

15:22

The

15:23

human mental state is a by-product of material movement

15:25

, but it itself will not cause new events. Now

15:28

that we’ve introduced epiphenomenalism,

15:29

let’s introduce some criticisms of it.

15:34

The first criticism of epiphenomenalism is

15:37

that it’s too counterintuitive, right?

15:38

What? Are mental states just a by-product?

15:40

The state of mind cannot cause the next event?

15:43

For example, if you like this video and vote for it, what

15:45

we intuitively feel is that it is

15:47

because we are very happy in our hearts that our mental state triggers the action of liking and voting for this video. For

15:52

example

15:52

, for example, for

15:53

example, if you have a girlfriend,

15:54

she She is very nice to you and waits for you to cook delicious dinner for you every day after work.

15:57

Epiphenomenalism insists on saying that she is very nice to you. It is not because of her inner love for you.

16:02

You insist on treating your girlfriend as a robot.

16:04

This love cannot be helped. Of course

16:05

,

16:06

if you think this criticism based on common sense is not strong enough,

16:09

there is another criticism from the perspective of evolution.

16:12

That is to say,