Learn Systems Thinking with Object-Process Modeling in PKM

Zsolt's Visual Personal Knowledge Management
16 Mar 202416:12

Summary

TLDR本视频由Zsolt主讲,继续探索图表,特别是对象-过程方法论(OPM)。视频强调系统思维的重要性,并介绍了OPD和OPL这两种ISO标准建模工具。通过将个人知识管理(PKM)个性建模,视频展示了不同工具在思考不同阶段的用途,并示范了OPM如何帮助理解复杂系统。Zsolt还讨论了结构和行为这两个系统的关键方面,并解释了如何通过OPM的可视化和文本形式来增强理解。视频最后推荐了学习建模语言的重要性,并分享了使用Excalidraw和Obsidian进行视觉PKM的个人经验。

Takeaways

  • 🌐 系统思维在处理复杂问题时至关重要,无论是全球挑战还是个人工作流程。
  • 📐 OPD和OPL是为系统思维设计的ISO标准建模工具。
  • 🔍 通过OPM,可以同时使用视觉和文本形式来促进双重通道处理,提高理解和处理复杂系统的能力。
  • 🏗️ 对象(Objects)是存在的或可能存在的事物,用名词表示并在OPD中用方框表示。
  • 🔄 过程(Processes)是发生或可能发生的事情,用现在分词形式的动词表示并在OPD中用椭圆表示。
  • 🔗 过程发生在对象上,通过线条在OPD中表示这种关系。
  • 🛠️ 过程可以创建、销毁/消耗或影响对象,即改变对象的状态。
  • 📌 对象必须有状态,即它们必须是有状态的(stateful)。
  • 🏢 系统的两个互补方面是结构(Structure)和行为(Behavior)。结构是系统的静态方面,行为是系统的动态方面。
  • 👨‍💼 人造系统还有一个功能或功利性方面,即系统为何而建以及为谁而建。
  • 🌟 学习建模语言就像学习外语一样,可以打开通往新见解和理解的大门。

Q & A

  • 什么是对象-过程方法论(OPM)?

    -对象-过程方法论(OPM)是一种系统思维工具,它通过对象(Objects)和过程(Processes)来建模和理解复杂系统。

  • 对象在OPM中代表什么?

    -在OPM中,对象代表宇宙中存在或可能存在的事物,如书本。对象是名词,以大写字母开头,并用一个方框表示。

  • 过程在OPM中的含义是什么?

    -过程是宇宙中发生或可能发生的事情,如阅读。在OPM中,过程是现在分词形式的动词,以“ing”结尾,以大写字母开头,并用一个椭圆表示。

  • 在OPM中,如何表示过程对对象的作用?

    -在OPM中,过程通过线条连接到对象来表示其作用。过程可以创建、销毁或消耗对象,或者改变对象的状态。

  • OPM中的结构和行为分别指什么?

    -结构是系统的静态方面,回答了系统由什么组成以及各部分如何关联的问题。行为是系统的动态方面,回答了系统如何随时间变化的问题。

  • 如何理解OPM中的‘状态’?

    -在OPM中,对象必须是有状态的,即它们必须具有状态。这意味着我们讨论的不仅是对象,还有能够改变它们状态的过程。

  • OPM如何帮助我们理解复杂系统?

    -OPM通过视觉和文本形式的双重通道处理,使我们能够同时利用语言和视觉能力,从而更深入地理解复杂系统。

  • 为什么我们需要学习建模语言?

    -学习建模语言可以帮助我们以不同的方式表达和理解概念,就像使用不同的语言与不同的人交流一样。掌握建模语言能够为我们打开新的认识和理解之门。

  • 视频中提到的四种内在角色是什么?

    -视频中提到的四种内在角色是建筑师(Architect)、图书管理员(Librarian)、园丁(Gardener)和作家(Writer),它们代表了个人知识管理中的不同职能和活动。

  • 如何使用OPM模型来改善个人知识管理(PKM)?

    -通过使用OPM模型,我们可以更好地组织、分类和连接我们的知识和想法,从而提高个人知识管理的效率和效果。

  • 视频中提到的Excalidraw和Obsidian的组合有什么特点?

    -Excalidraw和Obsidian的组合提供了自由形式的插图和链接笔记的独特结合,这使得它们成为可视化个人知识管理(Visual PKM)的理想工具。

Outlines

00:00

🌟 探索对象-过程方法论

本段落介绍了对象-过程方法论(OPM)的重要性,强调了系统思维在处理复杂问题和个人工作流程中的核心作用。Zsolt通过回应观众对于概念建模实际应用的困惑,计划使用OPM来建模流行的PKM(个人知识管理)个性,以此来教授OPD和OPL的基础知识,并展示不同工具在不同思维阶段的用途。此外,还讨论了对象和过程的定义,以及它们如何通过线条在OPD中表示关系。

05:02

📚 状态、结构与行为

在这一部分中,Zsolt深入探讨了对象的状态,说明了过程如何通过改变对象的状态来影响它们。介绍了结构和行为作为系统分析的两个关键方面,结构是系统的静态方面,而行为则是动态方面。通过举例说明了如何使用OPM来表示知识的结构和行为,包括如何使用结构链接和标签来表示系统的不同组成部分及其关系。此外,还讨论了人造系统的功能或功利性方面,以及如何通过OPM的字典和模型来学习和理解OPM。

10:08

🖋️ 掌握建模语言的价值

Zsolt比喻建模语言和口语语言,强调了学习至少一种或两种建模语言的重要性。他分享了自己学习OPM的经历,并提供了一个链接供观众探索和编辑他的OPM模型。此外,他还介绍了OPD如何通过不同级别的抽象来缩放模型,以及如何通过Excalidraw和Obsidian的组合来创建视觉PKM的插图和运行幻灯片。最后,他推荐了一些有用的OPM工具和资源。

15:09

🎨 视觉PKM的工具选择

在这最后一段中,Zsolt讨论了Excalidraw和Obsidian组合在视觉PKM中的应用,并解释了为什么这是他的首选工具。他还提到了OPCAT这个免费的OPM建模工具,尽管它有些过时,但对于学习OPM语法仍然很有用。Zsolt鼓励观众尝试这些工具,并分享了相关链接。他以感谢观众观看并邀请他们分享想法的方式结束了视频。

Mindmap

Keywords

💡Visual PKM

视觉个人知识管理(Visual PKM)是一种利用视觉工具和技巧来组织和优化个人知识的管理方式。在视频中,Zsolt通过探索图表和对象-过程方法论(OPM)来继续他对视觉PKM的探索,展示了如何通过视觉化工具来理解和管理复杂的系统。

💡对象-过程方法论(OPM)

对象-过程方法论(Object-Process Methodology)是一种系统思考的建模工具,它通过对象(Objects)和过程(Processes)来描述和理解复杂系统。OPM的核心在于识别系统中存在的实体(对象)以及发生在这些实体上的活动(过程),并通过这些元素之间的相互作用来揭示系统的行为和结构。

💡系统思考

系统思考是一种理解复杂系统和问题的方法,它强调系统内部各部分之间的相互关系和整体行为。在视频中,系统思考被视为解决全球挑战和个人工作流程的关键工具,它帮助人们识别和理解系统中的互联性。

💡概念建模

概念建模是一种用于描述和理解系统、数据结构和业务流程的建模技术。它通过图形化的方式表达概念和实体之间的关系,帮助人们更好地理解和分析复杂系统。在视频中,Zsolt提到了观众在概念建模的实际应用上遇到的困难,并提出使用OPM来解决这些问题。

💡对象(Objects)

在OPM中,对象指的是存在于宇宙中或可能存在的事物。它们可以是具体的,如一本书,也可以是抽象的,如一个想法。对象在OPD中以名词形式出现,以大写字母开头,并用一个方框来表示。

💡过程(Processes)

过程指的是在宇宙中发生或可能发生的活动。它们是动态的,可以是正在进行的或将要发生的。在OPM中,过程以现在分词形式的动词表示,以大写字母开头,并用椭圆形状来表示。过程需要作用于对象,即它们发生在对象上。

💡结构(Structure)

结构是系统的静态方面,它回答了系统由什么组成以及各部分如何关联的问题。它是系统的基础框架,定义了系统的组成部分以及这些部分之间的关系。在视频中,结构与行为(行为是系统的动态方面)一起,构成了系统分析的两个关键视角。

💡行为(Behavior)

行为是系统的动态方面,它描述了系统随时间变化的方式。行为关注的是系统内部的活动如何影响系统及其对象,包括系统如何响应外部刺激以及内部状态如何转变。

💡状态(State)

状态是指对象在特定时间点上的性质或条件。在OPM中,对象必须具有状态,这意味着对象可以根据其属性或条件的不同而处于不同的状态。状态的变化通常由过程引起,这些过程可以创建、销毁或改变对象的状态。

💡结构链接(Structural Link)

结构链接是OPM中用来表示对象之间静态关系的一种连接方式。它描述了对象的组成部分以及它们之间的聚合或关联关系。结构链接通常用箭头表示,箭头的方向表示从整体到部分的关系。

💡功能(Function)

功能是指人造系统的目的或实用价值,它回答了为什么构建系统以及为谁构建系统的问题。功能关注系统的设计意图和使用目的,是人造系统特有的方面,与自然发生的现象相对。

💡模型语言

模型语言是一种用于描述和建模系统、过程或概念的形式化语言。不同的模型语言适用于不同的建模场景,如BPMN用于业务流程建模,UML用于软件设计。学习模型语言可以帮助人们更有效地沟通和理解复杂概念。

Highlights

探索对象-过程方法论(Object-Process Methodology)以提升系统思维。

系统思维对于理解复杂世界中系统间的相互联系至关重要。

OPD和OPL是为系统思维设计的ISO标准建模工具。

通过OPM模型PKM个性来展示不同工具在思考不同阶段的实用性。

对象(OBJECTS)是宇宙中存在或可能存在的事物。

过程(PROCESSES)是宇宙中发生或可能发生的事情。

过程总是发生在对象上,通过线条在OPD中表示这种关系。

OPM的强大之处在于其能够同时促进视觉和文本形式的理解。

过程通过创建、销毁或影响对象来转变对象。

对象必须有状态,即状态对象和转变它们的过程。

系统可以从结构和行为两个互补方面来观察。

结构是系统的静态方面,行为是系统的动态方面。

人造系统还有一个功能或功利性方面,即系统为何而建和为谁而建。

学习建模语言就像学习口语语言一样,可以打开新文化和视角的大门。

掌握建模语言提供了通往新见解和理解的途径。

OPM模型不是流程图,真实系统很少按顺序操作。

个人知识管理的旅程始于像图书馆员一样策划内容。

建筑师、图书馆员、园丁和作家在我们内在的角色不是孤立存在的,它们是相互联系的。

介绍了对象-过程建模(Object-Process Modeling)并提供了相关的资源链接。

使用Excalidraw插件和Obsidian组合进行视觉PKM的插图和幻灯片演示。

Transcripts

00:00

Welcome back to Visual PKM.

00:02

I am Zsolt.

00:04

Today we continue our exploration of diagrams by exploring the Object-Process Methodology.

00:11

But, why should you care?

00:15

In our complex world systems thinking is crucial.

00:19

Whether we're wrestling with global challenges or navigating our personal workflows, understanding

00:27

the interconnectedness of systems is essential.

00:31

But what does systems thinking entail?

00:35

What tools-for-thought are you using to facilitate this process?

00:41

OPD and OPL are ISO standard modeling tools designed for systems thinking.

00:49

After last week's video, some of you have commented how you struggle with the practical

00:54

application of Concept Modeling.

00:56

I'll respond to by modeling PKM Personalities, popularized by Anne-Laure Le Cunff, Nick Milo,

01:05

and Tiago Forte, using OPM.

01:08

Thus my hope is to hit three birds with one stone.

01:14

To teach the basic of OPD and OPL, to show how different tools are useful at different

01:22

stages of our thinking, and to demonstrate how OPM can help understand complex systems.

01:31

We'll start with a few questions.

01:33

Now, if we were chatting over a coffee, I'd wait for your reply and we'd have a discussion,

01:41

but given our circumstances, I am just going to pause shortly after each question giving

01:46

you time to come up with your own answer.

01:50

But before we dive in, I just want to mention that you should definitely check out the video

01:54

description.

01:55

I've included some helpful resources there, should you wish to explore OPM further.

02:04

and now the questions...

02:07

What are the things that exist in the universe?

02:12

What do we call them?

02:16

The answer is OBJECTS are the THINGS that exist or might exist.

02:20

We can think of them as things that might exist, or in fact exist.

02:22

For example a book is an object.

02:25

In OPD objects are nouns, they start with a capital letter and are represented with

02:32

a square.

02:35

What are the things that happen in the universe?

02:41

The answer is the PROCESSES are what happen or might happen.

02:47

For example reading is a process.

02:52

In OPD processes are verbs in present participle form, that is, ending with "ing".

03:00

They start with a capital letter and are represented with an ellipse.

03:05

But processes cannot happen in vacuum; they happen to something.

03:12

Therefore the follow-up question is What are the things to which processes happen?

03:22

The answer is that processes happen to objects.

03:25

The things that happen happen to the things that exist.

03:30

You represent this relationship with a line in OPD.

03:35

There are a few different type of connections, the one I am using here is the instrument

03:40

relation.

03:42

You read it as "Reading requires a book".

03:46

This sentence is the OPL representation of the OPD.

03:54

Let's take a moment for a very important side-note, the strength of OPM lies in its ability to

04:01

facilitate dual-channel processing.

04:04

By grounding our understanding in both visual and textual formalisms simultaneously, OPM

04:12

enables us to engage our verbal and visual faculties at the same time giving you twice

04:19

the brainpower, using all the cores of your CPU.

04:26

What do processes do to objects?

04:31

The answer is that processes transform objects.

04:38

What does it mean for a process to transform an object?

04:44

Transforming of an object by a process means one of three possible things.

04:49

The process can create an object, the process can destroy or consume an object,

04:57

and a process can affect an object.

05:02

For example "Reading yields one or more Fleeting Notes or Ideas".

05:08

I use the term "fleeting note" in reference to How to Take Smart Notes by Sönke Ahrens.

05:15

The arrow I am using here is a procedural link that represents Input, Output and Results,

05:22

in this case, output.

05:24

The little plus sign next to the arrow is a "participation constraint" and denotes "at

05:31

least one".

05:34

In turn our "Note Making process consumes at least one Fleeting Note and yields at least

05:42

one Note"

05:45

But what does it mean for a process to affect an object?

05:51

A process affects an object by changing its state.

05:57

So here we introduce, in addition to objects and processes, a third term, which is state.

06:06

Objects must, therefore, be stateful.

06:09

In other words, they must have states.

06:11

Thus we are talking about not just objects, but stateful objects, and processes that transform

06:20

them.

06:21

For example a "Book can be unread or read."

06:25

and "Reading changes the Book from unread to read".

06:31

Now let's shift gears and ask another key question that we will need to use later on.

06:39

What are the two complementary aspects from which any system can be viewed?

06:45

Two important, two key aspects.

06:51

The two key aspects are structure and behavior.

06:56

Structure is the static aspect; it answers the question what is the system made of, what

07:02

are the parts, and how are they related?

07:07

The second aspect, the complementary aspect is the behavior.

07:11

It's the dynamic aspect, that answers the question How does a system change over time?

07:19

What happens to the system and the objects in it?

07:24

So for example a "Knowledge Base consist of at least one Catalogue, many Notes, many Connections,

07:32

and additional parts.", and a "Connection refers to two Notes."

07:38

The solid black arrowhead is a Structural Link and denotes aggregation, or participation

07:45

when read in the other direction, the horizontal line between the arrow head and the Knowledge

07:52

Base denotes that the aggregation is not comprehensive.

07:56

If the line were not there, we would assume the Knowledge Base only has these 3 components.

08:04

Additionally, "refers to" on the arrow between Connection and Note is called a tag and is

08:12

used to specify the nature of the relationship.

08:17

Another example is the generalization structural relationship.

08:22

"Video, Blog and Book are Content", and "Consuming generalizes Reading and Watching.".

08:31

Note that you could turn both of these sentences around, thus I could have said "Content generalizes

08:37

Video, Blog and Books."

08:39

and "Reading and Watching are Consuming".

08:43

Generalization means that the specialized elements inherit properties of the generalized

08:51

element.

08:52

Thus we can also say that "Content can be unknown or known" and "Consuming changes Content

09:01

from unknown to known".

09:05

Finally, there is an aspect that is only relevant to man-made systems.

09:12

What is it?

09:13

Well, it's the function or utilitarian, subjective aspect that answers the question: Why is the

09:21

system built, and for whom?

09:24

This question holds significance solely within the realm of man-made systems, as opposed

09:30

to natural occurrences.

09:34

I can imagine, that by now your head is spinning.

09:37

We've covered a lot.

09:39

Let's take a break and talk about learning languages.

09:43

Similar to spoken languages, there are different modeling languages as well.

09:48

Just as you use different languages to communicate with different people, you will use different

09:53

modeling languages to represent different concepts.

09:58

For example, BPMN for modeling business processes, UML for software design, Argdown for argument

10:07

modeling, IBIS for dialog mapping, or DMN for decision modeling.

10:14

Just as there are many spoken languages, there are many modeling languages.

10:19

However, the good news is that you don't need to learn them all to navigate through life.

10:26

Nonetheless, you should at least learn one or two.

10:31

Now, if you have ever tried to learn a language, you will know it is hard work.

10:38

But once you've learned it, it opens doors to new cultures and perspectives.

10:45

Mastering a modeling language offers a gateway to new insights and understanding.

10:51

However, learning a modeling language is not as hard as learning a foreign language, but

11:00

it still takes effort.

11:01

Now, I don't want to bore you to death with my Object-Process Model of PKM.

11:06

I am going to share a link to it so you can explore and edit it in Excalidraw.

11:12

I just want to highlight a few things before wrapping this video up.

11:18

First, I want to clarify that I am also just learning OPM.

11:23

I have watched all the videos I could find and spent a good 5-6 hours studying Dov Dori's

11:29

book.

11:30

But please take my model with a grain of salt.

11:34

I am not a native OPD or OPL speaker, so my grammar, vocabulary, and accent are likely

11:42

very rudimentary.

11:44

Because of this, I even created a dictionary for myself, just as you would when learning

11:49

a foreign language.

11:51

I will share a link to it in the video description as well.

11:56

I hope you find it useful.

11:59

Second, you will notice that I have four big circles on the map.

12:04

This is OPD's solution for zooming in and out to different levels of abstraction.

12:10

If the model becomes too complex, you can zoom in or out to view it at different levels

12:18

of detail.

12:19

On this map, Architecting, Curating, Gardening, and Authoring are the higher-level processes.

12:29

This is how the model looks when I hide the details within these circles.

12:35

To make this view even cleaner, I slightly reorganized elements, an hid some of the structural

12:42

decompositions by removing the breakdown of a PKM Framework and the specialization of

12:50

Content.

12:52

Third, this is not a flowchart.

12:57

While there are processes in systems, real systems seldom operate in a sequential manner;

13:03

usually, there are concurrent, sometimes competing, and maybe probabilistic activities.

13:10

However, to get a sense of order, the general rule is to read these models from top down.

13:19

Finally, to address the comment about the practicality of all this, let's discuss the

13:27

Architect, Librarian, Gardener, and Writer within all of us.

13:32

Based on my rudimentary OPM model, it is clear to me that it is not a question of either-or,

13:40

but rather these personalities playing in concert.

13:45

Our journey in personal knowledge management starts with curating content, much like a

13:51

librarian organizing books.

13:53

But soon, you'll realize the need to architect a system for storing notes and managing your

14:00

backlog of content you've yet to explore.

14:04

This is where the architect in you takes charge.

14:08

As your library grows, you'll find yourself gardening, organizing, sorting, and connecting

14:14

ideas.

14:15

When it's time to create, the writer in you steps forward.

14:20

However, these roles don't exist in isolation; they're interconnected.

14:25

The diagramming and modeling techniques we've discussed in recent videos are particularly

14:32

helpful when your inner architect is at work.

14:36

In closing, I hope you found this introduction to Object-Process Modeling helpful.

14:43

If you did, please hit that like button, subscribe, and share your thoughts in the comments.

14:51

Don't forget to check out the description below to find my dictionary and my OPD model

14:57

of PKM.

14:59

In case you were wondering, I used the Excalidraw Plugin in Obsidian.md to create the illustrations

15:05

for this video, as well as to run the slideshow.

15:09

While there are many dedicated diagramming and modeling tools out there, the unique combination

15:15

of freeform illustration and linked notes offered by the Excalidraw and Obsidian combo

15:23

makes this my tool of choice for Visual PKM.

15:26

I'll include links in the description to my plugin, as well as to my video about the slideshow

15:33

script that I am using.

15:35

Additionally, there is a free OPM modeling tool called OPCAT available.

15:42

The tool is a bit dated, as it requires Java Runtime Environment, and you will need to

15:49

Google for OPCAT download, since the download link on the official website is broken.

15:56

However, it is useful for learning the grammar.

16:00

I'll include the link to the official website in the description.

16:07

Until next time, thanks for watching, this is Zsolt signing off.

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