Someone Just Created a Black Hole Analog Using Quantum Effects

Anton Petrov
24 Mar 202412:47

Summary

TLDRThe video discusses the creation of an analog black hole using quantum effects in material, exploring its potential implications for studies on the universe and gravity. It explains the concept of Sonic black holes and how they mimic real black holes, including the observation of Hawking radiation. The video highlights a recent study that stabilizes quantum vortices to create a larger Quantum Vortex, resembling a black hole and exhibiting interesting effects similar to those of actual black holes. This breakthrough could bring us closer to understanding quantum physics and the nature of gravity.

Takeaways

  • ๐ŸŒŒ The discussion revolves around an experiment that created an analog black hole on Earth, made from materials with quantum effects.
  • ๐Ÿ”ฌ Analog black holes are microscopic in size and help us understand properties of real black holes, gravity, and the universe.
  • ๐ŸŒ€ Sonic or acoustic black holes use sound waves instead of light and matter to mimic black hole effects.
  • ๐ŸŽถ Hawking radiation has been observed in sonic black holes, emitting energy from the equivalent of an event horizon.
  • ๐ŸŒช๏ธ Researchers have recreated a rotating black hole, known as a Kerr black hole, demonstrating the effect of super radiance.
  • ๐Ÿ’ง Superfluids, like helium 3 and 4, have zero viscosity and can be used to create more accurate analog black holes due to their quantum properties.
  • ๐Ÿ”„ Superfluids can create quantized vortices that theoretically spin indefinitely, but individual vortices are unstable and challenging to study.
  • ๐Ÿ”— A recent study found a way to stabilize quantum vortices by merging them into a larger one, creating a larger, more stable analog black hole.
  • ๐ŸŒŸ The stabilized vortex exhibited unusual standing waves similar to those observed from colliding black holes, suggesting a resemblance to gravitational environments.
  • ๐Ÿค” The experiment brings us closer to combining quantum effects with classical physics to explain phenomena in black holes and gravity.
  • ๐ŸŒ The concept of emerging gravity is supported by these experiments, proposing that gravity is not a force but a result of complex systems.

Q & A

  • What is the main topic of the discussion?

    -The main topic is the creation of an analog black hole or a black hole replica made entirely out of material possessing quantum effects, and its potential implications for various studies involving black holes and our understanding of the universe.

  • Why is it difficult to study black holes directly?

    -Direct study of black holes is challenging because the nearest one is approximately 2,000 light years away from us, making research dependent on simulations, direct observations using telescopes, and predictions from various theories.

  • What is a Sonic black hole?

    -A Sonic black hole, also known as an acoustic black hole, is a laboratory-made phenomenon where phonons or perturbations of sound travel through sound waves and can sometimes fall into a hypothetical black hole region, unable to escape.

  • What is an Einstein condensate?

    -An Einstein condensate is a state of matter where a large number of particles are cooled down so much that they begin to act like one large superparticle or a large superwave, capable of producing a light black hole by slowing down light significantly.

  • What is the significance of Hawking radiation in the context of Sonic black holes?

    -In the context of Sonic black holes, Hawking radiation is a phonic version of the original concept, where sound waves emit energy from the equivalent of the event horizon, demonstrating the black hole's properties.

  • What is a superfluid and why is it relevant to black hole research?

    -A superfluid is a state of matter with zero viscosity, producing no friction and not sticking to anything, which is relevant to black hole research because it allows for the creation of Quantum vortices that can mimic the effects of black holes without the complications of viscosity.

  • What unusual behavior does superfluid helium exhibit?

    -Superfluid helium exhibits behaviors such as climbing up the walls of a container, defying gravity, and creating fountains that can function indefinitely due to its zero viscosity and the ability to stir and create vortices that spin indefinitely.

  • How do researchers create a stable Quantum Vortex?

    -Researchers create a stable Quantum Vortex by merging individual quantized vortices into one large vortex at certain frequencies, using a specific wave-vortex interaction and a miniaturized device to stabilize the system.

  • What effects were observed in the newly created Quantum Vortex?

    -In the newly created Quantum Vortex, researchers observed unusual standing waves similar to those detected from black holes, especially after black hole collisions, and the formation of bound states, suggesting a resemblance to the gravitational environment around typical black holes.

  • How do these experiments contribute to our understanding of gravity?

    -These experiments contribute to our understanding of gravity by exploring the concept of emerging gravity, which proposes that gravity may not be a force but a phenomenon that arises in certain complex systems, potentially including those involving quantum vortices and black holes.

  • What is the potential implication of these studies for future research?

    -The potential implication of these studies is that they may eventually lead to explaining everything in the universe by combining quantum effects with classical physics and providing insights into the nature of black holes and gravity.

Outlines

00:00

๐ŸŒŒ Introduction to Analog Black Holes

This paragraph introduces the concept of analog black holes, which are experimentally created phenomena that mimic the properties of actual black holes. It explains that these analogs are not destructive like real black holes but are fascinating replicas made from materials exhibiting quantum effects. The potential implications of studying these analog black holes are vast, touching on our understanding of the universe, gravity, and more. The paragraph sets the stage for a deeper discussion on the subject by mentioning the challenges of directly studying black holes due to their immense distance from Earth and the reliance on simulations and observations from telescopes.

05:00

๐Ÿ”ฌ Experiments with Superfluids and Sonic Black Holes

The second paragraph delves into the experimental methods used to create analog black holes, particularly focusing on the use of superfluids and sonic black holes. It describes how superfluids, such as helium isotopes cooled near absolute zero, exhibit unusual properties like zero viscosity and the ability to create quantized vortices. Sonic black holes, which replace light with sound waves, are also discussed, highlighting their ability to exhibit phenomena like Hawking radiation and super radiance. The paragraph emphasizes the breakthroughs in understanding black hole properties through these experiments, despite the challenges posed by the viscosity of liquids and the need for superfluids to accurately mimic black hole environments.

10:01

๐ŸŒ€ Stabilizing Quantum Vortices and Emerging Gravity

The final paragraph discusses a recent study that has potentially discovered a way to stabilize quantum vortices, creating a larger and more enduring analog black hole. By merging individual quantized vortices into one large vortex, researchers have been able to create a stable structure that exhibits effects similar to those observed in real black holes, such as standing waves and bound states. The paragraph suggests that these experiments could bring us closer to understanding the quantum effects and classical physics involved in black holes and the universe at large. It also touches on the concept of emerging gravity, which proposes that gravity may not be a force but a phenomenon that arises in complex systems, including those involving quantum vortices.

Mindmap

Keywords

๐Ÿ’กAnalog Black Hole

An analog black hole is a small-scale, artificial construct that mimics the properties of a real black hole, allowing scientists to study black hole physics in a laboratory setting. In the video, it is mentioned that these analogs are created using quantum effects and provide insights into the nature of black holes, such as event horizons and Hawking radiation.

๐Ÿ’กBose-Einstein Condensate

A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter that occurs at extremely low temperatures, where a group of particles act as a single entity, exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena. In the context of the video, BECs are used to create a light black hole by slowing down light to the point where it can be stopped, simulating the effect of a black hole on light.

๐Ÿ’กSonic Black Holes

Sonic black holes, also known as acoustic black holes, are experimental setups that use sound waves instead of light to simulate the properties of black holes. These are created by having a fluid flow faster than the speed of sound, creating an event horizon for sound waves. The video mentions that sonic black holes can exhibit phenomena similar to real black holes, such as Hawking radiation in the form of sound waves.

๐Ÿ’กEvent Horizon

The event horizon is the boundary around a black hole beyond which nothing can escape, not even light. In the video, it is explained that the event horizon in an analog black hole is formed by the flow of a liquid faster than the speed of sound, trapping sound waves or light within a certain region.

๐Ÿ’กHawking Radiation

Hawking radiation is a theoretical process by which black holes can lose mass and energy by emitting particles from the event horizon. The video discusses how sonic black holes have been observed to emit a phonic version of Hawking radiation, providing evidence that these analog black holes can mimic real black hole properties.

๐Ÿ’กSuperfluidity

Superfluidity is a quantum mechanical state of matter where a fluid flows without any viscosity or resistance. The video explains that superfluids, such as helium isotopes at near absolute zero temperatures, exhibit unusual properties like climbing the walls of a container, which can be used to create stable quantum vortices that mimic black holes without the instability of smaller vortices.

๐Ÿ’กQuantum Vortex

A quantum vortex is a type of vortex that forms in a superfluid, characterized by quantized circulation and the absence of viscosity. In the video, it is mentioned that researchers have found a way to stabilize quantum vortices by merging individual vortices into a larger one, creating a more stable analog black hole that exhibits behaviors similar to those of actual black holes.

๐Ÿ’กStanding Waves

Standing waves are waves that, after reflecting off a boundary, interfere with themselves and create a pattern that appears to stand still. In the context of the video, standing waves are observed in the quantum vortex created in the superfluid, resembling the ringdown waves produced after black hole collisions, which are a type of standing wave in the gravitational field.

๐Ÿ’กEmergent Gravity

Emergent gravity is a concept that proposes gravity is not a fundamental force but rather a phenomenon that arises from the complex interactions of other particles and fields. The video suggests that experiments with superfluids and analog black holes might provide insights into this concept, as they exhibit effects similar to gravity without the need for a gravitational force.

๐Ÿ’กQuantum Effects

Quantum effects are the observable phenomena that result from the principles of quantum mechanics, which govern the behavior of particles at very small scales. In the video, quantum effects are crucial for the creation and behavior of analog black holes, as they allow for the simulation of black hole properties such as event horizons and Hawking radiation in a laboratory setting.

Highlights

Anton discusses an experiment that created an analog black hole on Earth using quantum effects.

The experiment involves creating a black hole replica to study its properties without the dangers of a real black hole.

Analog black holes can be made from extremely small, usually microscopic, materials that mimic the properties of black holes.

Bose-Einstein condensates are used to create light black holes by slowing down light significantly.

Sonic or acoustic black holes use sound waves and phonons to study black hole effects.

Sonic black holes have shown to exhibit Hawking radiation, emitting energy from the event horizon.

Researchers recreated a rotating black hole and demonstrated the effect known as super radiance.

Super radiance is a process that extracts energy from the rotation of a black hole, producing more energy than other sources.

Viscosity in liquids causes uncertainty and problems in mimicking black hole effects.

Superfluids, like helium isotopes near absolute zero, exhibit zero viscosity and quantum effects.

Superfluids can create vortices that spin indefinitely due to the absence of friction.

Stirring a superfluid doesn't cause immediate movement, but at a critical angular velocity, it forms quantized vortices.

Recent study found a way to merge individual quantized vortices into a stable, larger quantum vortex.

The merged vortex behaves as a multiple quantized object, stabilizing the quantum vortex.

The stabilized vortex exhibited interesting effects, including unusual standing waves similar to black holes.

The standing waves produced by the vortex suggest similarities to gravitational environments around black holes.

The experiment combines quantum fields and astrophysical black hole effects, bringing us closer to understanding gravity.

The discovery supports the idea of emerging gravity, proposing that gravity is not a force but a result of complex systems.

Experiments with superfluids may eventually explain everything in the universe, including gravity.

Transcripts

00:00

hello wonderful person this is Anton and

00:02

today we're going to discuss an

00:03

extremely interesting experiment that to

00:06

some extent created a black hole right

00:09

here on planet Earth okay not like an

00:11

actual black hole that's going to

00:12

destroy everything but a very intriguing

00:15

analog black hole or I guess a black

00:17

hole replica made entirely out of

00:20

material possessing Quantum effects and

00:23

by itself this actually has a lot of

00:25

potential implications for many

00:27

different studies involving black holes

00:29

the Universe our understanding of

00:31

everything in it and even things like

00:33

gravity and so let's actually discuss

00:35

this a little bit more because as of

00:37

right now this is probably one of the

00:39

most exciting experiments involving

00:41

what's known as analog black holes but

00:44

first a few basic concepts to help you

00:46

understand so obviously right now

00:48

there's really no way for us to directly

00:50

study black holes especially because the

00:52

nearest one is almost 2,000 like years

00:54

away from us which means that all of the

00:56

research involved in black holes is

00:58

usually either based on simulations or

01:01

direct observations using various

01:03

telescopes and previous predictions from

01:05

a lot of different ideas and a lot of

01:07

different theories but there is actually

01:10

another way an experimental way where we

01:12

can technically create something really

01:14

small usually microscopic in size that

01:17

kind of act like a black hole and helps

01:19

us understand a lot of its properties

01:21

for example one way to create something

01:23

that possesses certain properties of

01:25

black ho is by forming what's known as B

01:27

Einstein condensate a type of a state of

01:30

matter where a lot of particles are

01:32

cooled down so much that they basically

01:34

start acting like one large super

01:37

particle or technically one large

01:38

superwave and this can actually produce

01:41

what's known as a light black hole

01:42

because they essentially slow down light

01:44

so much that it can even sometimes stop

01:47

it completely but a much more common

01:49

example in the lab usually uses what's

01:51

known as Sonic black holes or basically

01:54

black holes where everything is replaced

01:56

with sound sometimes also referred to as

01:58

acoustic black holes where essentially

02:00

instead of light and instead of matter

02:02

you'll have phonons or perturbations of

02:05

sound that can travel through sound

02:07

waves and sometimes you can actually

02:09

make them fall into a kind of a

02:11

hypothetical black hole where they're

02:13

unable to escape a certain region

02:15

normally this region is formed by some

02:17

kind of a fluid and so here by using

02:19

certain liquids and then watching sound

02:21

propagate inside of them researchers

02:23

found different ways to kind of mimic

02:26

the effects from various black holes as

02:28

well and intriguingly in just the last

02:30

few years there have been some major

02:32

breakthroughs because these unusual

02:33

black holes seem to exhibit very similar

02:36

effects to what we actually expect from

02:38

a real black hole for example many

02:40

different Sonic black holes seem to

02:42

exhibit Hawken radiation a kind of a

02:44

phonic version of it or basically using

02:46

sound waves but they essentially emit

02:48

energy from the equivalent of the Event

02:50

Horizon we've briefly discussed one of

02:52

these experiments in one of the videos

02:54

in the description and here the Event

02:56

Horizon is basically defined by the flow

02:58

of the liquid here the the speed of flow

03:00

is greater than the speed of sound so it

03:02

actually forms a kind of an event

03:04

horizon moreover back in 2010 and

03:06

actually in several other experiments

03:08

afterwards the researchers were able to

03:10

recreate a kind of a rotating black hole

03:13

also known as care black hole and here

03:15

they demonstrated the effect known as

03:17

super Radiance a process that's able to

03:20

extract energy from the rotation of the

03:22

black hole and usually much more energy

03:25

than we can actually get from anything

03:26

else and this by itself is a really

03:28

exciting concept and astronomers have

03:30

actually seen signs of this from a lot

03:32

of different black holes out there real

03:34

ones not the Sonic ones and so these

03:37

black hole replicas or sonic blacko seem

03:39

to be possible because fluids tend to

03:42

experience very similar effects and even

03:44

exhibit very similar properties

03:46

especially when it comes to motion of

03:48

stuff inside of them but the thing is

03:50

there's always been one problem most

03:52

liquids also have quite a lot of

03:54

viscosity basically they kind of stick

03:56

to things and so this viscosity presents

03:59

a a lot of uncertainty and a lot of

04:01

problems it actually creates a lot of

04:03

random motion that would not exist in

04:05

Black Horse because we don't expect

04:07

space time to stick to anything and so

04:09

for many years scientists have been

04:11

proposing to use super liquids or super

04:14

fluids fluids that are basically perfect

04:17

containing no viscosity producing no

04:20

friction and not sticking to anything at

04:22

all and though it might sound like

04:23

something that doesn't exist it totally

04:25

does in the realm of quantum physics and

04:28

it's known as super fluidity he kind of

04:31

a causing to Super conductivity with the

04:33

two most well-known super fluids both

04:36

being helium helium 3 and helium 4 and

04:39

so isotopes of helium when cool down

04:42

dramatically here we're talking about

04:43

temperatures almost at Absolute Zero

04:45

will start acting really really strange

04:48

there's this much older video from the

04:50

60s kind of showing us some of these

04:52

effects one of the craziest effects is

04:54

visible right here it tends to actually

04:56

crawl up the walls of any kind of a

04:58

container and then drips down like

05:00

there's no gravity and it doesn't

05:01

actually care and it can even create

05:03

unusual fountains that can basically

05:05

function indefinitely because there's no

05:08

viscosity no friction and it can

05:10

basically just feed itself over and over

05:12

and so these very strange helium

05:14

experiments back in the days first of

05:15

all blew everyone's minds and later on

05:18

made everyone realize that we needed new

05:21

theories new explanations and very

05:23

likely a lot of quantum physics but

05:26

that's beside the point the point is

05:27

that these super liquids do exist we

05:29

know quite a lot about them already and

05:31

they do have very unusual properties

05:33

such as zero viscosity which allows them

05:36

to move without any loss of energy and

05:39

more importantly allows them to be

05:40

stirred and to create vortices that

05:43

would technically spin indefinitely so

05:45

in theory if you were to store helium 4

05:48

at these extreme temperatures it should

05:51

basically spin forever and ever and

05:53

never stop but it's a Quantum fluid so

05:57

that means that it basically laughs at

05:58

our classical ideas

06:00

and anytime we try something it

06:02

surprises us once again turns out if you

06:04

stir a Quantum super fluid first of all

06:07

it doesn't actually do anything at all

06:09

and so here the experiments were really

06:11

shocking the researchers were basically

06:12

trying to spin it by spinning the

06:14

container itself but because there's no

06:16

viscosity instead of going with a

06:18

container the liquid helium would just

06:20

stay not moving and not doing anything

06:23

however it turns out that if you spin

06:25

the container faster and faster at some

06:27

point the container reaches a kind of a

06:29

critical angular velocity and so instead

06:32

of being stationary now the super fluid

06:34

starts to form Vortex but not just one

06:38

many of them and they kind of look like

06:40

this they're extremely small in size

06:42

practically miniature and they're

06:43

referred to as aoso Vortex and moreover

06:47

the number of these vertices and the way

06:49

they behave all of this is quantized in

06:52

other words it can only exist in certain

06:54

States it can only spin in a certain way

06:57

it can only create certain patterns and

06:59

it can not change in any other way and

07:01

so unlike water that basically spins any

07:03

way it wants these Quantum vertices are

07:06

extremely different and as you increase

07:08

the rotation more and more more of these

07:10

quantise vertices start to appear

07:12

changing the pattern accordingly which

07:14

kind of doesn't actually help us with

07:16

these studies of black o because we

07:18

don't think black ho do the same or at

07:20

least that's not what science shows us

07:21

so far which made a lot of these studies

07:23

using super fluid helium a little bit

07:26

challenging they could only produce tiny

07:28

tiny vortices which technically do

07:30

represent tiny black holes but it's

07:32

difficult to see them difficult to study

07:34

and they don't actually last very long

07:36

they're not stable they disappear all

07:37

the time and that's until now a recent

07:40

study just came out and potentially

07:43

discovered a way to stabilize everything

07:45

and to actually create a relatively

07:47

large Quantum Vortex a picture of which

07:50

you see right here and the only way they

07:51

were able to create this is by finding a

07:53

way to merge all these individual

07:55

quantize vertices into one large one

07:58

this seems to happen at certain

08:00

frequencies so everything has to spin in

08:02

just the right way with the vortex then

08:04

behaving as a kind of a multiple

08:06

quantized object and so despite the

08:09

instability of individual Quantum

08:11

vertices the researchers found a way to

08:13

stabilize it by using a very specific

08:16

wave Vortex interaction and using a

08:19

miniaturized device you see right here

08:21

which then creates this analog black

08:23

hole resembling a typical Vortex and

08:25

even more importantly when this unusual

08:27

Vortex was created it started to exhibit

08:30

extremely interesting effects first of

08:32

all they observed unusual standing waves

08:35

and in some sense these waves are

08:36

extremely similar to what we detect from

08:38

black holes especially after black hole

08:40

Collision these overtones previously

08:43

observed from various colliding black

08:44

holes are a type of a ring down that

08:47

happen right after the black hole is

08:48

formed and that's actually something

08:50

that was just observed here as well as

08:52

soon as those tiny quantized vortices

08:54

merged they produce something similar

08:57

here's the image of these unusual bound

08:59

States or these standing waves that were

09:01

also produced in this Vortex referred to

09:03

as bound States and that basically

09:05

suggests that a lot of this resembles

09:08

gravitational environment around typical

09:10

black holes they seem to possess a lot

09:12

of similar effects and they even seem to

09:14

possess effects that we only discovered

09:16

in just the last few years basically

09:18

this Vortex seems to resemble space-time

09:21

Dragon very very well naturally because

09:23

it contains no viscosity but also

09:25

because it contains a lot of quantum

09:27

effects and that's actually the real

09:29

important part today astrophysicists

09:31

believe that the only way we can explain

09:33

what's happening in black holes and the

09:35

only way we can explain things like

09:36

gravity is really by combining Quantum

09:39

effects with classical physics nobody

09:41

knows what the answer is yet but it's

09:43

really studies like this that might

09:45

finally lead us to an actual answer

09:48

because this is a combination of quantum

09:49

fields and the effects we observe in

09:52

astrophysical black holes this takes us

09:54

just a step closer to maybe explaining

09:56

everything once and for all but on top

09:58

of this there's Discovery here that's

10:00

basically staring Us in the face for

10:02

some reason a lot of these different

10:04

mimics a lot of these analog black hols

10:07

seem to always result in producing

10:09

effects similar to gravity and that

10:11

actually relates to the idea known as

10:13

emerging Gravity the idea that proposes

10:15

that maybe gravity is not actually a

10:17

force but instead is something that just

10:20

happens in certain complex systems

10:22

including systems involving black Hol

10:24

stars and galaxies or systems involving

10:27

Quantum vortices and so in other words

10:29

these experiments using super fluids May

10:32

potentially explain everything in the

10:33

universe at some point in the future

10:36

they don't yet but it's experiments like

10:38

this that are able to create mimic black

10:40

holse that are most likely to answer all

10:43

of these questions but obviously this is

10:44

just a start and we don't have any

10:46

answers yet once we do I'll make sure to

10:48

make another video Until then thank you

10:50

for watching subscribe check out all the

10:52

links and all of the papers in the

10:54

description below support this channel

10:55

patreon by joining Channel membership or

10:57

by buying the wonderful person t-shirt

10:58

you can find in the description stay

11:00

wonderful I'll see you tomorrow and as

11:01

always

11:12

[Music]

11:21

[Music]

11:28

bye-bye

12:28

e